«Moreover», they write, «private-sector indebtedness across the euro area as a whole is markedly lower than in the highly leveraged Anglo-Saxon economies». The authors conclude that the crisis «is as much political as economic» and the result of the fact that the euro area lacks the support of «institutional paraphernalia of a state». Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin. These include both commonly issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, and nationally issued coins, such as the coin to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics issued by Greece. Collector coins with various other denominations have been issued as well, but these are not intended for general circulation, and they are legal tender only in the member state that issued them. Currency is bought on the currency foreign exchange, also known as the forex exchange. «Spelling of the words «euro» and «cent» in official community languages as used in community legislative acts» . The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S.

As uncertainty mounted about the stability of key currencies, central banks liquidated their foreign-exchange balances and scrambled to replace them with gold reserves. Only the European part of the country is part of the European Union and uses the euro. Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Aruba have their own currencies, which are pegged to the dollar. As of January 2014, and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries have decreased. Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China. The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers; hence export from the eurozone becomes more difficult. Within the EU several currencies are pegged to the euro, mostly as a precondition to joining the eurozone. The Danish krone, Croatian kuna and Bulgarian lev are pegged due to their participation in the ERM II. Capital within the EU may be transferred in any amount from one state to another. All intra-Union transfers in euro are treated as domestic transactions and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs.


The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP, equally weighted. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem . As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems. The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor (one-hundredth) unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular. This may contradict normal rules for word formation in some languages, e.g., those in which there is no eu diphthong.

Concerning the effect on corporate investment, there is evidence that the introduction of the euro has resulted in an increase in investment rates and that it has made it easier for firms to access financing in Europe. The euro has most specifically stimulated investment in companies that come from countries that previously had weak currencies. A study found that the introduction of the euro accounts for 22% of the investment rate after 1998 in countries that previously had a weak currency. A 2009 consensus from the studies of the introduction of the euro concluded that it has increased trade within the eurozone by 5% to 10%, although one study suggested an increase of only 3% while another estimated 9 to 14%. However, a meta-analysis of all available studies suggests that the prevalence of positive estimates is caused by publication bias and that the underlying effect may be negligible.

Origin Of Pegged

Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition. Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro. The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown on the right. To participate in the currency, member states are meant to meet strict criteria, such as a budget deficit of less than 3% of their GDP, a debt ratio of less than 60% of GDP , low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro. Each banknote has its own colour and is dedicated to an artistic period of European architecture. The front of the note features windows or gateways while the back has bridges, symbolising links between states in the union and with the future. The monuments looked similar enough to different national monuments to please everyone. To make this singleness apparent, Community law requires a single spelling of the word euro in the nominative singular case in all community and national legislative provisions, taking into account the existence of different alphabets. The evidence on the convergence of prices in the eurozone with the introduction of the euro is mixed.

pegged currency

While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand. The currency is also used officially by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Additionally, over 200 million people worldwide use currencies pegged to the euro.

How To Use Pegged In A Sentence

The central bank selects a range, or «band», of values at which to set their currency, and will intervene in the market or return to a fixed exchange rate if the value of their currency shifts outside this band. This allows for some revaluation, but tends to stabilize the currency’s value within the band. In this sense, it is a compromise between a fixed (or «pegged») exchange rate and a floating exchange rate. Physical investment seems to have increased by 5% in the eurozone due to the introduction. Regarding foreign direct investment, a study found that the intra-eurozone FDI stocks have increased by about 20% during the first four years of the EMU.

pegged currency

This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

Eurozone Crisis

Since the beginning of 1977, sterling had risen against the dollar, but was down against the strong currencies. In either case member countries would have to keep their currencies within the prescribed margins. However, in history, good currencies rarely disappeared but continuously circulated with premiums against bad currencies. Second, instead of devaluing the dinar in the 1980s, leaders arbitrarily pegged it to a basket of convertible currencies. They pass the election operator test because their fitness is evaluated at the previous-period rates of return on two currencies.

pegged currency

This includes all member states of the EU, even those outside the eurozone providing the transactions are carried out in euro. Credit/debit card charging and ATM withdrawals within the eurozone are also treated as domestic transactions; however paper-based payment orders, like cheques, have not been standardised so these are still domestic-based. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland . This practice is discouraged by the commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. Denmark has negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a non-binding referendum in 2003, and has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. The Maastricht Treaty was later amended by the Treaty of Nice, which closed the gaps and loopholes in the Maastricht and Rome Treaties. Another, no less important, consequence had been the outstanding role assumed by the pound sterling among the world’s reserve currencies. More examples Take some foreign currency to cover incidentals like the taxi fare to your hotel.

Meaning Of Currency In English

Despite pressure due to the European sovereign-debt crisis the euro remained stable. In November 2011 the euro’s exchange rate index – measured against currencies of the bloc’s major trading partners – was trading almost two percent higher on the year, approximately at the same level as it was before the crisis kicked off in 2007. The changeover period during which the former currencies’ notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state. The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more. Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely . The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, although banknotes remain exchangeable until 2022. The currency was introduced in non-physical form (traveller’s cheques, electronic transfers, banking, etc.) at midnight on 1 January 1999, when the national currencies of participating countries ceased to exist independently.

Several studies failed to find any evidence of convergence following the introduction of the euro after a phase of convergence in the early 1990s. A possible reason for the divergence between the different studies is that the processes of convergence may not have been linear, slowing down substantially between 2000 and 2003, and resurfacing after 2003 as suggested by a recent study . The euro has been used as a trading currency in Cuba since 1998, Syria since 2006, and Venezuela since 2018. In 2009, Zimbabwe abandoned its local currency and used major currencies instead, including the euro and the United States dollar. The use of national currencies as foreign exchange reserves was clearly unsustainable in this environment. Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past.


The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. The Central Bank intervened in the currency markets today to try to stabilize the exchange rate. In total, as of 2013, 182 million people in Africa use a currency pegged to the euro, 27 million people outside the eurozone in Europe, and another 545,000 people on Pacific islands. With all but one EU members obliged to join when economic conditions permit, together with future members of the EU, the enlargement of the eurozone is set to continue. Together this direct usage of the euro outside the EU affects nearly 3 million people.

  • To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland .
  • As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
  • This practice is discouraged by the commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes.
  • For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g., credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals).
  • After its introduction on 4 January 1999 its exchange rate against the other major currencies fell reaching its lowest exchange rates in 2000 (3 May vs Pound sterling, 25 October vs the U.S. dollar, 26 October vs Japanese yen).

While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role. A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate. The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union, based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December 1998. The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right. They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies that day.


The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002. This further increased the already high levels of public debt to a level the markets began to consider unsustainable, via increasing government bond interest rates, producing the ongoing European sovereign-debt crisis. One of the advantages of the adoption of a common pegged currency currency is the reduction of the risk associated with changes in currency exchange rates. It has been found that the introduction of the euro created «significant reductions in market risk exposures for nonfinancial firms both in and outside Europe». These reductions in market risk «were concentrated in firms domiciled in the eurozone and in non-euro firms with a high fraction of foreign sales or assets in Europe».

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